The Journal of the American Medical Association is advising adults to take one multivitamin pill per day, to avoid deficiencies that can lead to disease.5 Even so, one of the more common misconceptions is that multivitamins, especially B vitamins, increase appetite. As such, many dieters avoid multivitamin supplements.
Science, however, suggests the opposite is true. A daily multivitamin (elhelyezhető belső link a v360 Multivitamin kategória oldala) can be highly beneficial for a weight-loss regimen. Let’s see what multivitamins can do for you in terms of fat loss!
- Contrary to popular belief, multivitamin and mineral supplements can help control hunger.10
- Multinutrient supplements may increase energy expenditure, and fat utilization. As a result, fat loss and the reduction of body weight on a calorie restricted diet can be higher with multivitamins than without them. 9
- As calorie restricted diets carry a higher risk of nutritional deficiencies, the use of a multivitamin may be an effective “insurance” policy against the negative effects of deficiency.
MULTIS HELP APPETITE CONTROL!
In one study, the effects of multivitamin and mineral supplements on appetite were investigated during a 15-week energy restricted diet intervention (-700 kcal deficit per day). Results showed that both fasting and postprandial (after meal) appetite ratings were significantly reduced in multivitamin supplemented women. 10
In a separate study, researchers investigated body weight and composition relative to the regular consumption of micronutrient supplements. In this study they concluded that, compared with non-consumers, consumers of vitamin and/or dietary supplements had a lower body weight, fat mass, body mass index (BMI), and a tendency for greater resting energy expenditure.10
INCREASED ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND FAT OXIDATION!
In study published in the International Journal of Obesity, subjects randomized into three groups, received either a multivitamin and mineral supplement, a calcium supplement (162 mg), or a placebo. After 26 weeks, the multivitamin supplement group lost significantly more body weight and fat mass compared with the placebo, and calcium groups. The reduction in waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) were also significantly higher among the multivitamin group compared with the other two groups. In addition, a significant improvement in serum lipid profile was detected. The conclusion was that the decrease in bodyweight and fat mass was possibly induced by an increase in energy expenditure and fat oxidation. 9
FILL NUTRITIONAL GAPS IN A CALORIE RESTRICTED DIET
We might think that nutritional deficiencies only exist in the developing countries, but, surprisingly, this is not the case. Researchers found that a gap exists between vitamin intake and requirements for a significant proportion of the population even in the most affluent countries. More than 75% of the population do not consume the recommended level of at least one vitamin in Germany, the UK, and the US. 12
Obese individuals have been shown to have low blood concentrations or low bioavailability of minerals and/or vitamins. 1, 6, 7, 9, 13 Several publications have established a strong association between nutrient deficiency and obesity. A particular study found an 80.8% increased likelihood of being overweight or obese in micronutrient deficient subjects. 2, 3, 4, 8, 11, 14
We all know that one of most important rules of fat loss is creating a calorie deficit that forces our body to draw on energy reserves, particularly fat stores, to compensate. But fewer calories means increased risk of nutritional deficiencies.
A study examined four popular diet plans (Atkins, DASH, South Beach, and Best Life) to determine if, when followed as directed, they delivered 100% of the recommended dietary intake (RDI) of essential micronutrients. Analysis determined that each of the four diet plans failed to provide minimum RDI sufficiency for all micronutrients analyzed.3
- Aasheim ET, Hofso D, Hjelmesaeth J, Birkeland KI, Bohmer T. Vitamin status in morbidly obese patients: a cross-sectional study. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 87: 362–369.
- Asfaw A. Micronutrient deficiency and the prevalence of mothers’ overweight/obesity in Egypt. Economics and Human Biology. 2007;5:471–483. doi: 10.1016/j.ehb.2007.03.004.
- Calton JB. Prevalence of micronutrient deficiency in popular diet plans. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2010;7:24. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-7-24.
- Dzieniszewski J, Jorosz M, Szczygie B, Diugosz J, Marlicz K, Linke K, Lachowicz A, Ryko-Skiba M, Orzeszko M. Nutritional status of patient hospitalized in Poland. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2005;59:552–560. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602117.
- Fletcher RH, Kathleen M. Fairfield. Vitamins for Chronic Disease Prevention in Adults Clinical Applications. JAMA. 2002;287(23):3127–3129. doi:10.1001/jama.287.23.3127
- Kaidar-Person O, Person B, Szomstein S, Rosenthal RJ. Nutritional deficiencies in morbidly obese patients: a new form of malnutrition? Part A: vitamins. Obes Surg 2008; 18: 870–876.
- Kaidar-Person O, Person B, Szomstein S, Rosenthal RJ. Nutritional deficiencies in morbidly obese patients: a new form of malnutrition? Part B: minerals. Obes Surg 2008; 18: 1028–1034.
- Koleva M, Kadiiska A, Markovska V, Nacheva A, Boev M. Nutrition nutritional behavior, and obesity. Central European Journal of Public Health. 2000;8:10–13.
- Li Y, Wang C, Zhu K, Feng RN, Sun CH.: Effects of multivitamin and mineral supplementation on adiposity, energy expenditure and lipid profiles in obese Chinese women. Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Jun;34(6):1070-7. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2010.14. Epub 2010 Feb 9.
- Major GC, Doucet R, Jacqmain M, St-Onge M, Bouchard C, Tremblay A. Multivitamin and dietary supplements, body weight and appetite: results from a cross-sectional and a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. British Journal of Nutrition. 2008; 99: 1157 -1167
- Smotkin-Tangorra M, Purushothaman R, Gupta A, Nejati G, Anhalt H, Ten S. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in obese children and adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2007;20:817–823. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17849744
- Troesch B, Hoeft B, McBurney M, Eggersdorfer M, Weber P. Dietary surveys indicate vitamin intakes below recommendations are common in representative Western countries. Br J Nutr. 2012;108(4):692–8. doi:10.1017/ S0007114512001808.
- Wortsman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC, Lu Z, Holick MF. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72: 690–693.
- Xanthakos SA. Nutritional Deficiencies in Obesity and After Bariatric Surgery. Pediatric clinics of North America. 2009;56(5):1105-1121. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2009.002.