1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol. EFSA Journal 2010; 8(3):1461. [107 pp.]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1461
  2. Akoh CC.: Handbook of Functional Lipids. July 18, 2005 by CRC Press. ISBN 9781420039184
  3. Simopoulos AP, Cleland LG.: Omega-6/Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acid Ratio: The Scientific Evidence. 2003. ISBN: 978-3-8055-7640-6, e-ISBN: 978-3-318-01018-3, DOI:10.1159/isbn.978-3-318-01018-3
  4. Simopoulos AP.: An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity. Nutrients. 2016;8(3):128. doi:10.3390/nu8030128.
  5. Simopoulos AP.: The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother. 2002 Oct;56(8):365-79.
  6. Simopoulos AP.: The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2008 Jun;233(6):674-88. doi: 10.3181/0711-MR-311. Epub 2008 Apr 11.
  7. Simopoulos AP.: The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio, genetic variation, and cardiovascular disease. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:131-4.
  8. Simopoulos AP.: Evolutionary aspects of diet, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio and genetic variation: nutritional implications for chronic diseases. Biomed Pharmacother. 2006 Nov;60(9):502-7. Epub 2006 Aug 28.
  9. Blasbalg TL, Hibbeln JR, Ramsden CE, Majchrzak SF, Rawlings RR. Changes in consumption of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the United States during the 20th century. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2011;93(5):950-962. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.006643.
  10. Sheppard KW, Cheatham CL. Executive functions and the ω-6-to-ω-3 fatty acid ratio: a cross-sectional study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2017;105(1):32-41. doi:10.3945/ajcn.116.141390.
  11. Sheppard KW, Cheatham CL.: Omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio and higher-order cognitive functions in 7- to 9-y-olds: a cross-sectional study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Sep;98(3):659-67. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.058719. Epub 2013 Jul 3.
  12. Gómez Candela C, Bermejo López LM, Loria Kohen V.: Importance of a balanced omega 6/omega 3 ratio for the maintenance of health: nutritional recommendations. Nutr Hosp. 2011 Mar-Apr;26(2):323-9. doi: 10.1590/S0212-16112011000200013.
  13. FAO: Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition. Report of an expert consultation. Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations, Rome, 2010. ISBN 978-92-5-106733-8
  14. FAO/WHO: Interim Summary of Conclusions and Dietary Recommendations on Total Fat & Fatty Acids from the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Fats and Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition, November 10-14, 2008, WHO HQ, Geneva
  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to alpha-linolenic acid and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentrations (ID 493) and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 625) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 on request from the European Commission. EFSA Journal 2009; 7(9):1252. [17 pp.]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1252.
  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to EPA, DHA, DPA and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 502), maintenance of normal HDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 515), maintenance of normal (fasting) blood concentrations of triglycerides (ID 517), maintenance of normal LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 528, 698) and maintenance of joints (ID 503, 505, 507, 511, 518, 524, 526, 535, 537) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 on request from the European Commission. EFSA Journal 2009; 7(9):1263. [26 pp.]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1263.
  17.  EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion the substantiation of a health claim related to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and maintenance of normal (fasting) blood concentrations of triglycerides (ID 533, 691, 3150), protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage (ID 630), contribution to the maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight (ID 629), brain, eye and nerve development (ID 627, 689, 704, 742, 3148, 3151), maintenance of normal brain function (ID 565, 626, 631, 689, 690, 704, 742, 3148, 3151), maintenance of normal vision (ID 627, 632, 743, 3149) and maintenance of normal spermatozoa motility (ID 628) pursuant to Article 13(3) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 2010;8(10):1734. [27 pp.]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1734.
  18. Whelton SP, He J, Whelton PK, Muntner P.: Meta-analysis of observational studies on fish intake and coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol. 2004 May 1;93(9):1119-23.
  19. Yashodhara BM, Umakanth S, Pappachan JM, Bhat SK, Kamath R, Choo BH.: Omega-3 fatty acids: a comprehensive review of their role in health and disease. Postgrad Med J. 2009 Feb;85(1000):84-90. doi: 10.1136/pgmj.2008.073338
  20. Musa-Veloso K, Binns MA, Kocenas A, Chung C, Rice H, Oppedal-Olsen H, Lloyd H, Lemke S.: Impact of low v. moderate intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids on risk of coronary heart disease. Br J Nutr. 2011 Oct;106(8):1129-41. doi: 10.1017/S0007114511001644. Epub 2011 May 31.
  21. Vrablík M, Prusíková M, Snejdrlová M, Zlatohlávek L.: Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease risk: do we understand the relationship? Physiol Res. 2009;58 Suppl 1:S19-26.
  22. Appel LJ, Miller ER 3rd, Seidler AJ, et al. Does supplementation of diet with ‘fish oil’ reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Arch Intern Med 1993;153:1429–38.
  23. Geleijnse JM, Giltay EJ, Grobbee DE, Donders AR, Kok FJ.: Blood pressure response to fish oil supplementation: metaregression analysis of randomized trials. 2007 J. Hypertens. 20, 1493-1499.
  24.  Balk EM, Lichtenstein AH, Chung M, Kupelnick B, Chew P, Lau J.: Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review. Atherosclerosis. 2006 Nov;189(1):19-30. Epub 2006 Mar 10.
  25. Eslick GD, Howe PR, Smith C, Priest R, Bensoussan A.: Benefits of fish oil supplementation in hyperlipidemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol. 2009 Jul 24;136(1):4-16. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2008.03.092. Epub 2008 Sep 6.
  26. Lichtenstein AH, Appel LJ, Brands M, Carnethon M, Daniels S, Franch HA, Franklin B, Kris- Etherton P, Harris WS, Howard B, Karanja N, Lefevre M, Rudel L, Sacks F, Van Horn L, Winston M, Wylie-Rosett J. Summary of American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations Revision 2006. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 26, 2186-2191.
  27. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and maintenance of normal cardiac function (ID 504, 506, 516, 527, 538, 703, 1128, 1317, 1324, 1325), maintenance of normal blood glucose concentrations (ID 566), maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 506, 516, 703, 1317, 1324), maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 506), maintenance of normal (fasting) blood concentrations of triglycerides (ID 506, 527, 538, 1317, 1324, 1325), maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 527, 538, 1317, 1325, 4689), protection of the skin from photo-oxidative (UV-induced) damage (ID 530), improved absorption of EPA and DHA (ID 522, 523), contribution to the normal function of the immune system by decreasing the levels of eicosanoids, arachidonic acid-derived mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines (ID 520, 2914), and “immunomodulating agent” (4690) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 2010;8(10):1796. [32 pp.]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1796.
  28. Mozaffarian D and Rimm EB.: Fish intake, contaminants, and human health: evaluating the risks and the benefits. 2006 JAMA, 296, 1885-1899.
  29. Mozaffarian D.: Fish and n-3 fatty acids for the prevention of fatal coronary heart disease and sudden cardiac death. 2008 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87, 1991S-1996S
  30. Ortega RM, Rodríguez-Rodríguez E, López-Sobaler AM.: Effects of omega 3 fatty acids supplementation in behavior and non-neurodegenerative neuropsychiatric disorders. Br J Nutr. 2012 Jun;107 Suppl 2:S261-70. doi: 10.1017/S000711451200164X.
  31. Young G, Conquer J.: Omega-3 fatty acids and neuropsychiatric disorders. Reprod Nutr Dev. 2005 Jan-Feb;45(1):1-28.
  32. Stahl LA, Begg DP, Weisinger RS, Sinclair AJ.: The role of omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jan;9(1):57-64.
  33. Hoen WP, Lijmer JG, Duran M, Wanders RJ, van Beveren NJ, de Haan L.: Red blood cell polyunsaturated fatty acids measured in red blood cells and schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res. 2013 May 15;207(1-2):1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2012.09.041. Epub 2012 Oct 13.
  34. Zhu W, Wu Y, Meng Y-F, Xing Q, Tao J-J, Lu J. Fish Consumption and Age-Related Macular Degeneration Incidence: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Prospective Cohort Studies. Nutrients. 2016;8(11):743. doi:10.3390/nu8110743.
  35. Chong EW, Kreis AJ, Wong TY, et al. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid and fish intake in the primary prevention of age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Ophthalmol 2008;126:826–33.
  36. Hodge WG, Barnes D, Schachter HM, et al. The evidence for efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in preventing or slowing the progression of retinitis pigmentosa: a systematic review. Can J Ophthalmol 2006;41:481–90.
  37. Pocock G, Richards CD, Richards DA.: Human Physiology. Fifth Edition. December 2017. OUP Oxford; ISBN: 9780198737223
  38. Balistreri CR.: Eicosanoids, Inflammation and Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: Pathophysiology, Health Effects and Targets for Therapies: Smooth Muscle Tone. Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated, 2015. ISBN 1634828429, 9781634828420
  39. Zurier B.: Essential fatty acids and inflammation. Ann Rheum Dis. 1991 Nov; 50(11): 745–746. PMCID: PMC1004548
  40. Bagga D, Wang L, Farias-Eisner R, Glaspy JA, Reddy ST. Differential effects of prostaglandin derived from ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on COX-2 expression and IL-6 secretion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2003;100(4):1751-1756. doi:10.1073/pnas.0334211100.
  41. Calder PC. Omega‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: nutrition or pharmacology? British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2013;75(3):645-662. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04374.x.
  42. Calder PC. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes. Nutrients. 2010;2(3):355-374. doi:10.3390/nu2030355.
  43. Calder PC.: Dietary modification of inflammation with lipids. Proc Nutr Soc. 2002 Aug;61(3):345-58.
  44. Lee YH, Bae SC, Song GG.: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis. Arch Med Res. 2012 Jul;43(5):356-62. doi: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2012.06.011. Epub 2012 Jul 24.
  45. Goldberg RJ, Katz J.: A meta-analysis of the analgesic effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for inflammatory joint pain. Pain. 2007 May;129(1-2):210-23. Epub 2007 Mar 1.
  46. Miles EA, Calder PC.: Influence of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on immune function and a systematic review of their effects on clinical outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Nutr. 2012 Jun;107 Suppl 2:S171-84. doi: 10.1017/S0007114512001560.
  47. Belluzzi A, Brignola C, Campieri M, et al. Effect of an enteric-coated fish-oil preparation on relapses in Crohn’s disease. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1557–60.
  48. Shoelson SE, Lee J, Goldfine AB. Inflammation and insulin resistance. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2006;116(7):1793-1801. doi:10.1172/JCI29069.
  49. Ndisang JF, Rastogi S, Vannacci A. Immune and Inflammatory Processes in Obesity, Insulin Resistance, Diabetes, and Related Cardiometabolic Complications. Journal of Immunology Research. 2014;2014:579560. doi:10.1155/2014/579560.
  50. Chen L, Chen R, Wang H, Liang F.: Mechanisms Linking Inflammation to Insulin Resistance. International Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 2015, Article ID 508409, 9 pages, 2015. doi:10.1155/2015/508409
  51. McArdle MA, Finucane OM, Connaughton RM, McMorrow AM, Roche HM. Mechanisms of Obesity-Induced Inflammation and Insulin Resistance: Insights into the Emerging Role of Nutritional Strategies. Frontiers in Endocrinology. 2013;4:52. doi:10.3389/fendo.2013.00052.
  52. Zeyda M, Stulnig T, M, Obesity, Inflammation, and Insulin Resistance – A Mini-Review. Gerontology 2009;55:379-386
  53. Appel LJ, Miller ER 3rd, Seidler AJ, et al. Does supplementation of diet with ‘fish oil’ reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Arch Intern Med 1993;153:1429–38.
  54. Fedor D, Kelley DS.: Prevention of insulin resistance by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009 Mar;12(2):138-46. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e3283218299.
  55. Chen C, Yu X, Shao S: Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Glucose Control and Lipid Levels in Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis PLoS One. 2015; 10(10): e0139565. Published online 2015 Oct 2. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139565 PMCID: PMC4591987
  56. Mori TA, Bao DQ, Burke V, Puddey IB, Watts GF, Beilin LJ.: Dietary fish as a major component of a weight-loss diet: effect on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin metabolism in overweight hypertensive subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Nov;70(5):817-25.
  57. Thorsdottir I., et al. Randomized trial of weight-loss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content. International journal of obesity, 2007, vol. 31(10):1560-1566
  58. Kris-Etherton PM Harris WS and Appel LJ for the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee: Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease [published correction appears in Circulation 2003;107:512]. Circulation 106:2747–2757.
  59. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from Mead Johnson Nutritionals on DHA and ARA and visual development. The EFSA Journal (2009) 941, 1–14 DOI: 10.2903/j.efsa.2009.941
  60. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from Merck Selbstmedikation GmbH on DHA and support of the cognitive development of the unborn child and breastfed infant. The EFSA Journal (2009) 1007, 1-14 DOI: 10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1007
  61. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from Merck Selbstmedikation GmbH on DHA and support of the visual development of the unborn child and breastfed infant. The EFSA Journal (2009) 1006, 1-12. DOI: 10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1006
  62. Horvath A, Koletzko B, Szajewska H.: Effect of supplementation of women in high-risk pregnancies with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on pregnancy outcomes and growth measures at birth: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2007 Aug;98(2):253-9. Epub 2007 Apr 10.
  63. Cohen J.T., Bellinger D.C., Connor W.E., Shaywitz B.A. A quantitative analysis of prenatal intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognitive development. Am. J. Prev. Med. 2005;29:366–374. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2005.06.008.
  64. Hibbeln J.R., Davis J.M., Steer C., Emmett P., Rogers I., Williams C., Golding J. Maternal seafood consumption in pregnancy and neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood (ALSPAC study): An observational cohort study. Lancet. 2007;369:578–585. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60277-3.
  65. Jensen C.L., Voigt R.G., Llorente A.M., Peters S.U., Prager T.C., Zou Y.L., Rozelle J.C., Turcich M.R., Fraley J.K., Anderson R.E., et al. Effects of early maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake on neuropsychological status and visual acuity at five years of age of breast-fed term infants. J. Pediatr. 2010;157:900–905. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.06.006.
  66. Uauy R., Hoffman D.R., Mena P., Llanos A., Birch E.E. Term infant studies of DHA and ara supplementation on neurodevelopment: Results of randomized controlled trials. J. Pediatr. 2003;143:S17–S25. doi: 10.1067/S0022-3476(03)00398-6
  67. Helland I.B., Smith L., Saarem K., Saugstad O.D., Drevon C.A. Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children’s IQ at 4 years of age. Pediatrics. 2003;111:e39–e44. doi: 10.1542/peds.111.1.e39
  68. Greenberg JA, Bell SJ, Ausdal WV. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy. Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2008;1(4):162-169.
  69. Goldberg RJ, Katz J.: A meta-analysis of the analgesic effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for inflammatory joint pain. Pain. 2007 May;129(1-2):210-23. Epub 2007 Mar 1.
  70. Gruenwald J, Petzold E, Busch R, Petzold HP, Graubaum HJ.: Effect of glucosamine sulfate with or without omega-3 fatty acids in patients with osteoarthritis. Adv Ther. 2009 Sep;26(9):858-71. doi: 10.1007/s12325-009-0060-3. Epub 2009 Sep 4.
  71. Ariza-Ariza R, Mestanza-Peralta M, Cardiel HH.: Omega-3 fatty acids in rheumatoid arthritis: an overview. 1998 Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 27, 366-370.
  72. Fortin PR, Lew RA, Liang MH, Wright EA, Beckett LA, Chalmers TC, Sperling RI: Validation of a meta-analysis: the effects of fish oil in rheumatoid arthritis. 1995 J. Clin. Epidemiol. 48, 1379-1390.
  73. Adam O, Beringer C, Kless T, Lemmen C , Adam A, Wiseman M, Adam P, Klimmek R, Forth W.: Anti-inflammatory effects of a low arachidonic acid diet and fish oil in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. 2003Rheumatol. Int. 23, 27-36.
  74. Belch J Ansell D, Madhok R, O‟Dowd A, Sturrock R.: Effects of altering dietary essential fatty acids on requirements for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. 1988 Annals of Rheumatic Diseases 47, 96-104.
  75. Berbert AA, Kondo CR, Almendra CL, Matsuo T, Dichi I.: Supplementation of fish oil and olive oil in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. 2005 Nutrition 21, 131-136.
  76.  Calder PC.: The scientific basis for fish oil supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis. In: Food and Nutritional Supplements – Their role in health and disease. 2000 Ransley JK, Donnelly JK, Read NW, (Eds). Springer, Berlin, 75-197.
  77. Curtis CL, Rees SG, Cramp J, Flannery CR, Hughes CE, Little CB, Williams R, Wilson C, Dent CM, Harwood JL, Caterson B.: Notice of retraction. Effects of n-3 fatty acids on cartilage metabolism.2006 Proc. Nutr. Soc. 65, 434.
  78. Kremer JM, Jubiz W, Michalek A, Rynes RI, Bartholomew LE, Bigaouette J, Timchalk M, Beeler D, Lininger L.: Fish-oil fatty acid supplementation in active rheumatoid arthritis. A double- blinded, controlled, crossover study. 1987 Ann. Intern. Med. 106, 497-503.
  79. Kremer JM.: n-3 fatty acid supplements in rheumatoid arthritis, 2000 Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71 (suppl), 349S-51S.
  80. Nielsen GL, Faarvang KL, Thomsen BS, Teglbjaerg KL, Jensen LT, Hansen TM, Lervang HH, Schmidt EB, Dyerberg J, Ernst E.: The effects of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised, double-blind trial. 1992 Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 22, 687-691.
  81. Ramsbottom H, Lockwood B.: Nutraceuticals for healthy joints, 2006 The Pharmaceutical Journal 277, 740-746.
  82. James MJ, Cleland LG.: Dietary n-3 fatty acids and therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1997 Oct;27(2):85-97.
  83. James MJ, Cleland LG.: Dietary n-3 fatty acids and therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1997 Oct;27(2):85-97.
  84. Cleland LG, James MJ.: Osteoarthritis. Omega-3 fatty acids and synovitis in osteoarthritic knees. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2012 Apr 17;8(6):314-5. doi: 10.1038/nrrheum.2012.60.
  85. Du S, Jie Jin, Wenjun Fang, and Qing Su: Does Fish Oil Have an Anti-Obesity Effect in Overweight/Obese Adults? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. PLoS One. 2015; 10(11): e0142652. Published online 2015 Nov 16. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142652 PMCID: PMC4646500
  86. Di Girolamo FG, Situlin R, Mazzucco S, Valentini R, Toigo G, Biolo G.: Omega-3 fatty acids and protein metabolism: enhancement of anabolic interventions for sarcopenia. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2014 Mar;17(2):145-50. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000032.
  87. Smith GI, Atherton P, Reeds DN, Mohammed BS, Rankin D, Rennie MJ, Mittendorfer B.: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids augment the muscle protein anabolic response to hyperinsulinaemia-hyperaminoacidaemia in healthy young and middle-aged men and women. Clin Sci (Lond). 2011 Sep;121(6):267-78. doi: 10.1042/CS20100597.
  88. Smith GI, Atherton P, Reeds DN, Mohammed BS, Rankin D, Rennie MJ, Mittendorfer B.: Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation increases the rate of muscle protein synthesis in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Feb;93(2):402-12. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.005611. Epub 2010 Dec 15
  89. Wright S.: Essential fatty acids and the skin. 1989 Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 38:229-236.
  90. Schaffer, H.K.: Essential fatty acids and eicosanoids in cutaneous inflammation. 1989 Int J Dermatol. 28: 281-290.
  91. Horrobin DF: Essential fatty acid metabolism and its modification in atopic eczema. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):367S-72S.
  92. Manku MS, Horrobin DF, Morse NL, Wright S, Burton JL: Essential fatty acids in the plasma phospholipids of patients with atopic eczema. 1984 Br J Dermatol 110:643-648.
  93. Khayef G, Young J, Burns-Whitmore B, Spalding T. Effects of fish oil supplementation on inflammatory acne. Lipids in Health and Disease. 2012;11:165. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-11-165.
  94. Ziboh VA.: Essential fatty acids/eicosanoid biosynthesis in the skin: biological significance. 1994 Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 205:1-11.
  95. Ziboh VA, Miller CC, Cho Y. Metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids by skin epidermal enzymes: generation of antiinflammatory and antiproliferative metabolites. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):3618-6S
  96. Nematy M., D Mehdizadeh A, Razmpour, F.: A review on nutrition and skin aging. Iran J Dermatol 2015; 18: 20-24
  97. Kim HH, Shin CM, Park CH, Kim KH, Cho KH, Eun HC, Chung JH.: Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits UV-induced MMP-1 expression in human dermal fibroblasts. J Lipid Res. 2005 Aug;46(8):1712-20. Epub 2005 Jun 1.
  98. Fisher, G. J., Z. Q. Wang, S. C. Datta, J. Varani, S. Kang, and J. J. Voorhees. 1997. Pathophysiology of premature skin aging induced by ultraviolet light. N. Engl. J. Med. 337: 1419–1428.
  99. Kim HH, Cho S, Lee S, Kim KH, Cho KH, Eun HC, Chung JH.: Photoprotective and anti-skin-aging effects of eicosapentaenoic acid in human skin in vivo. J Lipid Res. 2006 May;47(5):921-30. Epub 2006 Feb 7.
  100.  Simopoulos AP. Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease and in growth and development. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 54: 438–63.
  101. Berbis P, Hesse S, Privat Y.: Essential fatty acids and the skin. Allerg Immunol (Paris). 1990 Jun;22(6):225-31.
  102. Cosgrove MC, Franco OH, Granger SP, Murray PG, Mayes AE. Dietary nutrient intakes and skin-aging appearance among middle-aged American women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:1225–31.
  103. De Spirt S, Stahl W, Tronnier H, Sies H, Bejot M, Maurette JM, Heinrich U.: Intervention with flaxseed and borage oil supplements modulates skin condition in women. Br J Nutr. 2009 Feb;101(3):440-5. doi: 10.1017/S0007114508020321. Epub 2008 Sep 2.
  104. Guo AL., Katta R.: Diet and hair loss: effects of nutrient deficiency and supplement use. Dermatol Pract Concept. 2017 Jan; 7(1): 1–10. Published online 2017 Jan 31. doi: 10.5826/dpc.0701a01 PMCID: PMC5315033
  105. Siguel E.: Diagnosing Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency. Circulation. 1998;97:2580-2583, originally published June 30, 1998.
  106. Le Floc’h C, Cheniti A, Connétable S, Piccardi N, Vincenzi C, Tosti A. Effect of a nutritional supplement on hair loss in women. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2015;14(1):76-82.
  107. Agranoff BW, Benjamins JA, et al.: Basic Neurochemistry Molecular, Cellular, and Medical Aspects (6th ed.), Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia 1999, pp. 47-67
  108. Bruce KD, Zsombok A, Eckel RH. Lipid Processing in the Brain: A Key Regulator of Systemic Metabolism. Frontiers in Endocrinology. 2017;8:60. doi:10.3389/fendo.2017.00060.
  109. Hamilton JA, Hillard CJ, Spector AA, Watkins PA. Brain uptake and utilization of fatty acids, lipids and lipoproteins: application to neurological disorders. J Mol Neurosci (2007) 33:2–11.10.1007/s12031-007-0060-1
  110. Muldoon MF, Ryan CM, Yao JK, Conklin SM, Manuck SB. Long-chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Optimization of Cognitive Performance. Military medicine. 2014;179(11 0):95-105. doi:10.7205/MILMED-D-14-00168.
  111. Dyall SC, Michael-Titus AT.: Neurological benefits of omega-3 fatty acids. Neuromolecular Med. 2008;10(4):219-35. doi: 10.1007/s12017-008-8036-z. Epub 2008 Jun 10.
  112. Bourre JM.: Omega-3 fatty acids in psychiatry. Med Sci (Paris). 2005 Feb;21(2):216-21.
  113. Dyall SC.: Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and the brain: a review of the independent and shared effects of EPA, DPA and DHA. Front Aging Neurosci. 2015; 7: 52. Published online 2015 Apr 21. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2015.00052 PMCID: PMC4404917
  114. Weiser MJ, Butt CB, Mohajeri MH.: Docosahexaenoic Acid and Cognition throughout the Lifespan. Nutrients. 2016 Feb; 8(2): 99. Published online 2016 Feb 17. doi: 10.3390/nu8020099 PMCID: PMC4772061
  115. Bauer I, Hughes M, Rowsell R, Cockerell R, Pipingas A, Crewther S, Crewther D.: Omega-3 supplementation improves cognition and modifies brain activation in young adults. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2014 Mar;29(2):133-44.
  116. Bauer I, Crewther S, Pipingas A, Sellick L, Crewther D.: Does omega-3 fatty acid supplementation enhance neural efficiency? A review of the literature. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2014 Jan;29(1):8-18.
  117. Stonehouse W, Conlon CA, Podd J, Hill SR, Minihane AM, Haskell C, Kennedy D.: DHA supplementation improved both memory and reaction time in healthy young adults: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 May;97(5):1134-43. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.053371. Epub 2013 Mar 20.
  118. Zaouali-Ajina M, Gharib A, Durand G, Gazzah N, Claustrat B, Gharib C, Sarda N: Dietary docosahexaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids normalize urinary melatonin excretion in adult (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid-deficient rats. J Nutr. 1999 Nov; 129(11):2074-80.
  119. Catalá A.: The function of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the pineal gland. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010 Feb; 1801(2):95-9.
  120. Zhang H, Hamilton JH, Salem N Jr, Kim HY: N-3 fatty acid deficiency in the rat pineal gland: effects on phospholipid molecular species composition and endogenous levels of melatonin and lipoxygenase products. J Lipid Res. 1998 Jul; 39(7):1397-403.
  121. Peuhkuri K, Sihvola N, Korpela R.: Diet promotes sleep duration and quality. Nutr Res. 2012 May; 32(5):309-19.
  122. Montgomery P, Burton JR, Sewell RP, Spreckelsen TF, Richardson AJ.: Fatty acids and sleep in UK children: subjective and pilot objective sleep results from the DOLAB study – a randomized controlled trial. J Sleep Res. 2014 Aug; 23(4): 364–388. Published online 2014 Mar 8. doi: 10.1111/jsr.12135 PMCID: PMC4263155
  123. Liu J, Cui Y, Li L, Wu L, Hanlon A, Pinto-Martin J, Raine A, Hibbeln JR.: The mediating role of sleep in the fish consumption – cognitive functioning relationship: a cohort study. Scientific Reports, 2017; 7 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-17520-w
  124. Ladesich JB, Pottala JV, Romaker A, Harris WS. Membrane Level of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Is Associated with Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine : JCSM : Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. 2011;7(4):391-396. doi:10.5664/JCSM.1198.
  125. Papandreou C.: Independent associations between fatty acids and sleep quality among obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. J Sleep Res. 2013 Oct;22(5):569-72. doi: 10.1111/jsr.12043. Epub 2013 Feb 25.